Συγκριτική αξιολόγηση αιθανόλης και αιθυλαιθέρων ως συστατικά ανάμιξης της βενζίνης

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dc.contributor.author Πολιτίδης, Νικόλαος el
dc.contributor.author Politidis, Nikolaos en
dc.date.accessioned 2022-10-07T10:09:38Z
dc.date.available 2022-10-07T10:09:38Z
dc.identifier.uri https://dspace.lib.ntua.gr/xmlui/handle/123456789/55867
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.26240/heal.ntua.23565
dc.rights Αναφορά Δημιουργού-Μη Εμπορική Χρήση-Όχι Παράγωγα Έργα 3.0 Ελλάδα *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/gr/ *
dc.subject Αιθανόλη el
dc.subject ΕΤΒΕ el
dc.subject ΤΑΕΕ el
dc.subject Πτητικότητα el
dc.subject Τάση Ατμών el
dc.title Συγκριτική αξιολόγηση αιθανόλης και αιθυλαιθέρων ως συστατικά ανάμιξης της βενζίνης el
heal.type bachelorThesis
heal.classification Chemical Engineering en
heal.language el
heal.access free
heal.recordProvider ntua el
heal.publicationDate 2022-02
heal.abstract This thesis focuses on the comparative and combined effect of three oxygenated additives of biological or semi-biological origin on the properties of two base gasolines, mainly on their volatility. These three additives are bioethanol (bio-EtOH), bio-ETBE and bio-TAEE. The two base gasolines were prepared by blending the refinery fractions Isomerate, Dimate, Reformate, FCC Naphtha and Alkylate. The first base (LRON) has a RON equal to 93 and the second (HRON) equal to 95. After the addition of the oxygenates, these octane numbers will be equal to those of low and high RON gasolines on the market (95 and 98-100 respectively). The two base gasolines where prepared taking into account all the specifications in accordance to the European standard EN 228. The main difference of these base gasolines is the higher content of olefins in LRON and the higher content of iso-paraffins in HRON. Their vapor pressures were close to the upper limit of the specifications for the summer period in Greece (60 kPa). Their distillation curves differ mainly on the middle fraction region, where HRON is less volatile. The maximum oxygen content required by EN 228 is equal to 3,7%w/w. This requirement can be met by 10%v/v EtOH, an equivalent amount of ethers or a combination of oxygenates. Ethanol, due to the azeotropes it forms with the hydrocarbons present in the base gasolines, has a negative effect on their mixture volatility, significantly increasing vapor pressure and forming plateaus in the distillation curve. ETBE and TAEE, which are made with ethanol and refinery fractions, do not form azeotropes with hydrocarbons and have very good blending properties with gasoline. Firstly, mixtures of each base with each oxygenate are studied. Afterwards, each base is mixed with combinations of all three additives. Various combinations of the two ethers totaling 10% v/v of every mixture are studied alongside ethanol contents ranging from 1 to 6%v/v. The corresponding oxygen contents range from 1,8% to 3,9%w/w. Through this process, the effect of the additives on the two bases is examined, while simultaneously identifying mixtures of oxygenates that can be used on the market. The volatility analysis of the mixtures includes the measurement of their vapor pressure, distillation curve and evaporated recovery rates at 70 oC, 100 oC and 150 oC (E70, E100 and E150 respectively). These properties are compared between the blends and with the specifications set by EN 228 for class A gasoline, which is used in Greece during the summer period (1/May-30/September), during which the analysis was carried out. The addition of ethanol increased vapor pressure above the permissible limits, while the addition of ethers decreased it. In the mixtures where oxygenate combinations were used, the effect of ethanol was mitigated by the ethers. In the case of LRON, it decreased to within repeatability limits relative to the specifications, while for HRON it decreased to within the specification limits. The HRON mixtures showcased maxima in vapor pressure for ethanol contents of 3% and 4% v/v which were over the specification limits. This slight difference is a result of the different composition the two bases have and thus their different interactions with ethanol. Taking into account the waiver contained in EN 228, according to which the permissible vapor pressure limits are increased in relation to EtOH content, all the combination blends tested comply with the specifications. Regarding distillation curves, the mixtures containing ethanol exhibited plateaus due to the formation of azeotropes, during which large quantities of the mixture evaporate at specific temperatures. Ethers reduce volatility prior to their boiling point (73 oC for ETBE and 102 oC for TAEE) and increase it afterwards. In the combined mixtures, ethers helped counteract the increase of mid-fraction volatility caused by ethanol. This effect is a result of their boiling points and their ability to form azeotropes with ethanol themselves, thus preventing the formation of such bonds between EtOH and the base components. Through the combined use of the additives and with a few exceptions, the mixtures under consideration exhibited E70, E100 and E150 values in accordance with the specifications. The differences between the ethers are mainly a result of their different boiling points. ETBE has less of an effect on the vapor pressure and the volatilities of the front and middle fraction. Their comparison cannot be absolute but only relative to the pre-existing properties of the blend and the refinery production potential. Through this work it is evident that many combinations of ethanol and ethers can be used in high vapor pressure base gasolines resulting in blends that meet the limits set by European standard EN 228, even for the summer season. Furthermore, ETBE and TAEE are both very capable of compensating for the negative effects of alcohol in gasoline, while also aiding in increasing the oxygen content of the blends. en
heal.advisorName Καρώνης, Δημήτριος el
heal.committeeMemberName Ζαννίκος, Φανούριος el
heal.committeeMemberName Καβουσανάκης, Μιχάλης el
heal.academicPublisher Εθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο. Σχολή Χημικών Μηχανικών. Τομέας Σύνθεσης και Ανάπτυξης Βιομηχανικών Διαδικασιών (IV). Εργαστήριο Τεχνολογίας Καυσίμων και Λιπαντικών el
heal.academicPublisherID ntua
heal.numberOfPages 140 σ. el
heal.fullTextAvailability false

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Αναφορά Δημιουργού-Μη Εμπορική Χρήση-Όχι Παράγωγα Έργα 3.0 Ελλάδα Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Αναφορά Δημιουργού-Μη Εμπορική Χρήση-Όχι Παράγωγα Έργα 3.0 Ελλάδα