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Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas: Results from the ESCAPE study

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dc.contributor.author Cyrys, J en
dc.contributor.author Eeftens, M en
dc.contributor.author Heinrich, J en
dc.contributor.author Ampe, C en
dc.contributor.author Armengaud, A en
dc.contributor.author Beelen, R en
dc.contributor.author Bellander, T en
dc.contributor.author Beregszaszi, T en
dc.contributor.author Birk, M en
dc.contributor.author Cesaroni, G en
dc.contributor.author Cirach, M en
dc.contributor.author de Hoogh, K en
dc.contributor.author De Nazelle, A en
dc.contributor.author de Vocht, F en
dc.contributor.author Declercq, C en
dc.contributor.author Dedele, A en
dc.contributor.author Dimakopoulou, K en
dc.contributor.author Eriksen, K en
dc.contributor.author Galassi, C en
dc.contributor.author Grauleviciene, R en
dc.contributor.author Grivas, G en
dc.contributor.author Gruzieva, O en
dc.contributor.author Gustafsson, AH en
dc.contributor.author Hoffmann, B en
dc.contributor.author Iakovides, M en
dc.contributor.author Ineichen, A en
dc.contributor.author Kramer, U en
dc.contributor.author Lanki, T en
dc.contributor.author Lozano, P en
dc.contributor.author Madsen, C en
dc.contributor.author Meliefste, K en
dc.contributor.author Modig, L en
dc.contributor.author Molter, A en
dc.contributor.author Mosler, G en
dc.contributor.author Nieuwenhuijsen, M en
dc.contributor.author Nonnemacher, M en
dc.contributor.author Oldenwening, M en
dc.contributor.author Peters, A en
dc.contributor.author Pontet, S en
dc.contributor.author Probst-Hensch, N en
dc.contributor.author Quass, U en
dc.contributor.author Raaschou-Nielsen, O en
dc.contributor.author Ranzi, A en
dc.contributor.author Sugiri, D en
dc.contributor.author Stephanou, EG en
dc.contributor.author Taimisto, P en
dc.contributor.author Tsai, M-Y en
dc.contributor.author Vaskovi, E en
dc.contributor.author Villani, S en
dc.contributor.author Wang, M en
dc.contributor.author Brunekreef, B en
dc.contributor.author Hoek, G en
dc.date.accessioned 2014-03-01T11:47:20Z
dc.date.available 2014-03-01T11:47:20Z
dc.date.issued 2012 en
dc.identifier.issn 13522310 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/38131
dc.subject Air pollution en
dc.subject ESCAPE study en
dc.subject Long term en
dc.subject NO2 en
dc.subject NOx en
dc.subject Spatial variation en
dc.subject Traffic en
dc.title Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas: Results from the ESCAPE study en
heal.type other en
heal.identifier.primary 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.07.080 en
heal.identifier.secondary http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.07.080 en
heal.publicationDate 2012 en
heal.abstract The ESCAPE study (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) investigates long-term effects of exposure to air pollution on human health in Europe. This paper documents the spatial variation of measured NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 ESCAPE study areas across Europe.In all study areas NO2 and NOx were measured using standardized methods between October 2008 and April 2011. On average, 41 sites were selected per study area, including regional and urban background as well as street sites. The measurements were conducted in three different seasons, using Ogawa badges. Average concentrations for each site were calculated after adjustment for temporal variation using data obtained from a routine monitor background site.Substantial spatial variability was found in NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within study areas; 40% of the overall NO2 variance was attributable to the variability between study areas and 60% to variability within study areas. The corresponding values for NOx were 30% and 70%. The within-area spatial variability was mostly determined by differences between street and urban background concentrations. The street/urban background concentration ratio for NO2 varied between 1.09 and 3.16 across areas. The highest median concentrations were observed in Southern Europe, the lowest in Northern Europe.In conclusion, we found significant contrasts in annual average NO2 and NOx concentrations between and especially within 36 study areas across Europe. Epidemiological long-term studies should therefore consider different approaches for better characterization of the intra-urban contrasts, either by increasing of the number of monitors or by modelling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. en
heal.journalName Atmospheric Environment en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.07.080 en
dc.identifier.volume 62 en
dc.identifier.spage 374 en
dc.identifier.epage 390 en


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